High Definition x264 and Ultra High Definition x265 Standards
Revision 5.0 - 2020-04-15

[ Intro ]
Since the last revision, which was almost a decade ago, advancements have been made and HD Retail has been left in the dark

x265 and UHD have come into play, CRF has surpassed 2-pass in maintaining consistent quality, becoming the standard encoding
method in every other video section.

Simply put, this new revision brings retail into the 21st century, allowing for quality releases by following the standard
values, while also affording the freedoms necessary for groups to take things a step further and provide excellent quality

No longer are encodes constrained to bitrates or rules meant for cheap playback devices. Welcome to the 21st century and
welcome back to quality.

Compliance with this document is optional as of its pre date, and mandatory as of 2020-05-11 00:00:00 UTC (1589155200 Unix

1) [ Retail Sources ]
    1.1) Retail sources are considered as content distributed by studios via legitimate retail discs.
        1.1.1) Allowed formats include, but are not limited to: Blu-ray, Ultra HD Blu-ray, HD DVD.
        1.1.2) Blu-ray discs must be tagged as BluRay.
        1.1.3) Ultra HD Blu-ray discs must be tagged as UHD.BluRay.
        1.1.4) HD DVD discs must be tagged as HDDVD.
        1.1.5) Music discs must be tagged as MBluRay or UHD.MBluRay, must comply with the directory format specified in rule
               18.4.7, and are:
   Exempt from rules 8.14, 10.2 and 18.5.7.
   Only allowed for musical performances or events, not documentaries with live footage.
   Allowed to use the PURE tag, which must only be used for audio releases (e.g. albums) and must comply
                     with the directory format specified in rule 18.4.8.
       PURE releases are only allowed to be released at the source resolution.
                           e.g. Source is 1080p, therefore a 720p release is not allowed.

2) [ Non-retail Sources ]
    2.1) Non-retail sources are considered as content that is not distributed by studios via retail techniques.
        2.1.1) Non-retail formats include, but are not limited to: cam, bootlegs, workprints, screeners.
    2.2) Sources with visual or audible watermarks must be mentioned in the NFO.
         e.g. Black-and-white scenes and timecode counters.
    2.3) Non-retail sources are only exempt from the following rules:
        2.3.1) Rule 15 - Proof. No proof is required.
        2.3.2) Rule 3.7 - Any non-critical feature footage (e.g. credits, opening studio logos) may be removed at the
               discretion of the group.
        2.3.3) Rule 12.5 - Measures may be taken to conceal watermarks present in any stream, it is recommended to use the
               least destructive method possible.
    2.4) Non-retail elements must use the appropriate tag. e.g. LINE.

3) [ Video ]
    3.1) Transcoding of transcoded or lossy material is not allowed.
    3.2) Multiple video tracks are not allowed.
    3.3) Must be free from technical flaws.
        3.3.1) Technical flaws include, but are not limited to: sync issues, interlacing, lack of IVTC, bad aspect ratio,
               invalid resolution, unrelated footage, warnings, glitches not present on source, under-crop, over-crop.
    3.4) Dupes based on source type or disc format are not allowed.
    3.5) Left-eye or right-eye video streams from a 3D source must not be used for a 2D release.
        3.5.1) Except for titles that were released exclusively in 3D and that have no upcoming 2D disc planned.
        3.5.2) Except for cases when 4.7.1 applies and there is no 2D source available or planned to be released.
    3.6) Single features must not be split across multiple files.
        3.6.1) Sources where the opening credits and closing credits span multiple discs must be encoded and released as a
               single release.
               e.g. Disc 1: Opening credits and first 105 minutes of feature.
                    Disc 2: Remaining 122 minutes of feature and closing credits.
                    Release: A single 227 minute feature.
        3.6.2) Sources with multiple episodes, parts etc., that are in a single video file, must be split into individual
               releases if there is a clear delineation between them, such as credits.
               e.g. Disc contains 10 episodes in a single m2ts file with all episodes strung together with credits between
                    every episode, each episode must be released separately.
    3.7) Non-feature footage including, but not limited to: credits, previously on, intertitles must not be removed or encoded
        3.7.1) In situations of a progressive feature containing interlaced non-feature footage, the interlaced footage may be
               left interlaced, or only that footage must be deinterlaced.
               e.g. Only the credits are interlaced, you may leave them interlaced or only apply a deinterlacer to the
                    credits, not the entire video.
    3.8) Unrelated footage must be removed.
        3.8.1) Unrelated footage includes, but is not limited to: content warnings, studio worksheets, test screens, piracy
    3.9) English-spoken features must not contain foreign overlays for relevant on-screen information.
        3.9.1) Relevant on-screen information includes, but is not limited to: location titles, hardcoded subtitles,
               introduction text, or any other information essential to the plot of the feature.
        3.9.2) Non-relevant on-screen information includes: opening credits, movie title, closing credits.
        3.9.3) For discs where relevant on-screen information is included in the form of English subtitles instead of
               overlays, these subtitles must be included as a forced track (see 10.2). If the disc does not include them in
               English, it is not allowed to omit them and release the feature without them, as it is still considered
               relevant information.
    3.10) Using multiple retail video sources of the same movie is allowed and must not be encoded separately. Each source and
          what content came from which must be noted in the NFO.
          e.g. Feature from German BluRay with credits from American BluRay to avoid German translated credits, as the German
               BluRay had better quality for the feature.

4) [ Resolution / Aspect Ratio ]
    4.1) 720p refers to a maximum display resolution of 1280x720.
        4.1.1) For aspect ratios greater than or equal to 1.78:1, horizontal pixel width must be 1280 pixels.
               e.g. Source aspect ratio of 2.40:1 will resize to 1280x534.
        4.1.2) For aspect ratios less than or equal to 1.78:1, vertical pixel height must be 720 pixels.
               e.g. Source aspect ratio of 1.33:1 will resize to 960x720.
    4.2) 1080p refers to a maximum display resolution of 1920x1080.
    4.3) 2160p refers to a maximum display resolution of 3840x2160.
    4.4) Resolution must be mod2.
    4.5) Upscaling is not allowed.
        4.5.1) 1080p from a 1080p source and 2160p from a 2160p source encodes must only be cropped, no resizing is allowed.
        4.5.2) In situations where cropping is needed vertically and/or horizontally, resolutions are allowed to be under the
               max height or width. e.g. 1080p at 1916x1072 is acceptable.
        4.5.3) In situations where the source video stream does not meet the minimum requirements for 1080p/2160p, the video
               must be resized down to 720p/1080p and a source sample must be included.
    4.6) 3D must only be done at 1080p or 2160p resolutions.
    4.7) Dupes based on resolution are not allowed.
        4.7.1) Releases with an AR difference of at least 5% to the previous release are not considered a dupe. These releases
               must be tagged as WS, FS or OM (open matte), not PROPER, and the original release must not be nuked. Original
               aspect ratio (OAR) releases are always allowed.
   AR difference example:
                     Old release resolution (after crop) is 1920x1040
                     New release resolution (after crop) is 1440x1080
                     OldReleaseAR = 1920 / 1040 = 1.846
                     NewReleaseAR = 1440 / 1080 = 1.333
                     (OldReleaseAR - NewReleaseAR) / [(OldReleaseAR + NewReleaseAR) / 2] = AR difference
                     |AR difference * 100| = AR difference (%)
                     (1.846 - 1.333) / [(1.846 + 1.333) / 2] = 0.322
                     |0.322 * 100| = 32.2%
                     32.2% is greater than the 5% minimum, therefore the new release is not considered a dupe.
    4.8) Black borders, and anything that is not part of the feature, must be cropped.
        4.8.1) Black borders include, but are not limited to: black or colored borders, duplicate lines, dirty lines or
        4.8.2) Retention or removal of faded edges is left to the discretion of the group. Inclusion of faded edges is not
               considered a technical flaw.
   Faded edges refers to a line of pixels which are of similar appearance to pixels parallel to the video
   Releases which include faded edges must consider faded edges as a valid part of the video frame and do
                     not count as black borders.
                     e.g. A release cannot be propered if 1 pixel of faded edges and 1 pixel of black exists.
        4.8.3) In the case of varying aspect ratios throughout the feature, video must be cropped to the widest frame.
   Studio logos and credits must be disregarded when determining the widest frame.
        4.8.4) Situations where video cropping of the same content varies between sources are not considered a technical flaw,
               and may not be propered.
    4.9) Video can be over or under-cropped by a maximum of 1 pixel per side. Over or under-cropping by more than 1 pixel per
         side is considered a technical flaw.
        4.9.1) Under-crop refers to portions of the video frame which is not part of the feature.
    4.10) Resolution must be within 0.2% of the original aspect ratio.
        4.10.1) The original aspect ratio must only be calculated from the source after cropping.
        4.10.2) In situations where the source aspect ratio is incorrect as a result of bad mastering, a source sample and
                comparison screenshot of the final aspect ratio must be included.
    4.11) Sample aspect ratio (SAR):
          SAR = (PixelHeight / PixelWidth) / (DARHeight / DARWidth)
    4.12) Display aspect ratio (DAR):
          DAR = (PixelWidth * DARWidth) / (PixelHeight * DARHeight)
    4.13) Display resolution:
          DisplayWidth = PixelWidth * (SARWidth / SARHeight)
    4.14) Aspect ratio (AR) error:
          Original AR = (SourceWidth - [CropLeft + CropRight]) / (SourceHeight - [CropTop + CropBottom])
          Release AR = EncodeWidth / EncodedHeight
          AR Error % = [(Original AR - Release AR) / Original AR] * 100
    4.15) Target resolution when resizing to maintain mod2 and reduce AR error:
          TargetHeight = TargetWidth / [(SourceWidth - [CropLeft + CropRight]) / (SourceHeight - [CropTop + CropBottom])]
          The correct mod2 value can also be calculated from the ceiling of TargetHeight if the value is odd, and the floor of
          TargetHeight if the value is even.
        4.15.1) Alternatively, the following can be used to confirm the correct resolution is used from the above method by
                calculating the upper and lower integer limit of TargetHeight:
                HeightA = floor(TargetHeight + (TargetHeight mod2))
                HeightB = floor(TargetHeight - (TargetHeight mod2))
                The TargetHeight value (HeightA or HeightB) which results in an aspect ratio error which tends to zero must be
                e.g. TargetWidth: 1280.
                     SourceWidth: 1920, SourceHeight: 1080.
                     CropLeft + CropRight = 0, CropTop + CropBottom = 4.
                     TargetHeight = 1280 / ((1920 - 0) / (1080 - 4)) or 717.33.
                     HeightA = floor(717.33 + (717.33 mod2)) or 718.
                     HeightB = floor(717.33 - (717.33 mod2)) or 716.
                     TargetWidth x HeightA = 1280x718 with -0.09% AR error.
                     TargetWidth x HeightB = 1280x716 with 0.19% AR error.
                     -0.09% tends closer to zero than 0.19% does (0.09 < 0.19), therefore, HeightA must be used.

5) [ Filters ]
    5.1) Inverse telecine (IVTC), de-interlacing, or decimation must be applied as required.
    5.2) Only the following smart deinterlacers can be used: QTGMC (with preset slow or better) or Nnedi3.
    5.3) Only the following accurate field matching filters may be used: TIVTC or Decomb.
    5.4) Only the following sharp resizers can be used: Spline36Resize, Spline64Resize or BlackmanResize.
    5.5) Only frame accurate input source plugins can be used such as: DGIndex, DGDecNV or LSMASHSource. Use of frame
         inaccurate input source filters (e.g. DirectShowSource) is not allowed.
    5.6) Use of destructive and effects filters including, but not limited to: RemoveGrain, GrainFactory3, MedianBlur,
         FineSharp are not allowed.
    5.7) Optional recommended filtering methods:
        5.7.1) Sources that require crop, and are not mod2 on opposing sides, can be avoided by moving the video by one pixel.
               e.g. 139 pixels can be cropped from the top and bottom of a source.
                    source = LSMASHVideoSource("source.mkv")
                    Overlay(source, source, 0, -1)
                    Crop(0, 138, 0, -140)
        5.7.2) Use of SelectRangeEvery() as a quick method to test whether a higher or lower CRF value should be used.
               e.g. SelectRangeEvery(3000, 150).
        5.7.3) Selective debanding with f3kdb on scenes that require it is recommended, high attention to detail and caution
               must be observed.

6) [ Framerate ]
    6.1) Constant frame rate (CFR) must be used.
        6.1.1) Variable frame rate (VFR) methods are not allowed.
    6.2) Dupes based on frame rate are not allowed, use INTERNAL.
    6.3) Features which contain a constant dupe sequence must be decimated.
         e.g. A silent movie at 1080p24 with a dupe sequence of 1-in-6 must be decimated to 20 fps.
    6.4) For sources which contain footage at varying frames per second throughout (hybrid sources), applying an inverse
         telecine is left to the discretion of the group. The NFO must list a reason as per the final decision chosen.
        6.4.1) It is assumed that the majority of the feature contains enough unique frames to not require an inverse telecine
               filter. If it can be proven an inverse telecine or decimating filter does not result in any loss of unique
               frames, this is considered a technical flaw.
               e.g. The feature is filmed at 29.970 fps, but contains some footage filmed at 23.976 fps. Choosing to encode
                    the entire release at 29.970 is valid.
    6.5) Native and converted frame rates refer to the standard in which the feature was produced.
        6.5.1) NTSC produced content is native to NTSC.
        6.5.2) PAL produced content is native to PAL.
        6.5.3) NTSC produced content that is mastered in PAL is considered as converted video.
        6.5.4) PAL produced content that is mastered in NTSC is considered as converted video.
    6.6) Sources which contain converted video must be restored to the original frame rate.
        6.6.1) Converted video includes, but is not limited to: ghosted, blended, or duplicate frames.
        6.6.2) Converted video does not include NTSC to PAL or PAL to NTSC sources which are sped up or slowed down.
        6.6.3) If the restoration process is successful in restoring the footage to the native format without significant
               issues or artifacts, the CONVERT tag must not be used.
        6.6.4) In situations where the footage cannot be restored to the native format or results in significant issues or
               artifacts, the CONVERT tag must be used.
    6.7) True 50 / 59.940 fps video must be released at 50 / 59.940 fps. True 25 / 29.970 fps video released at 50 / 59.940
         fps is not allowed and considered a technical flaw.
        6.7.1) In cases of varying framerates of 25 / 29.970 fps and true 50 / 59.940 fps, the framerate of the main feature
               must be used. e.g. studio for talk shows, game coverage for sports.
        6.7.2) In rare situations, 25 / 50 fps sources must be restored to 23.976 or 29.97 fps.
        6.7.3) In rare situations, 29.97 / 59.940 fps sources must be restored to 25 fps.

7) [ Video Codec ]
    7.1) Video must be:
        7.1.1) H.265/MPEG-H HEVC encoded with x265 10-bit for 720p/1080p HDR and 2160p SDR/HDR content.
        7.1.2) H.264/MPEG-4 AVC encoded with x264 8-bit for 720p and 1080p SDR content.
        7.1.3) Custom builds of x264/x265 are allowed and must be based off the current x264/x265 codebase. e.g. tMod, kMod.
    7.2) x264/x265 headers must remain intact and must not be modified or removed.
    7.3) x264/x265 must be kept up to date, with a maximum allowance, or grace period, of 60 days before groups are required
         to update to the latest revision.
        7.3.1) The official x264 git repository is the only reference for determining the current revision:
        7.3.2) The official x265 git repository is the only reference for determining the current revision:
   Until such a time as MulticoreWare implement official revisional building, 3rd party builds (e.g. self-
                     compiles, http://msystem.waw.pl/x265 or https://builds.x265.eu) can be used and must be kept up to date
                     respecting 7.3.
        7.3.3) The 60 day grace period must only be applied at pre time, not the tagged encoded date.
        7.3.4) The grace period is only applicable to the revision preceding the latest update and does not reset active grace
               periods of preceding revisions.
               e.g. 2016-01-01: Revision A is used.
                    2016-01-02: Revision B is committed, 60-day grace period begins for revision A.
                    2016-01-05: Revision C is committed, 60-day grace period begins for revision B.
                    2016-03-02: Revision A is no longer allowed, Revision B or C may be used.
                    2016-03-05: Revision B is no longer allowed, Revision C must be used.
    7.4) Segmented encoding is not allowed.
    7.5) Constant Rate Factor (--crf) must be used.
        7.5.1) Decimal values may be used.
        7.5.2) Starting with an initial value of 16 or 14 (for especially compressible sources) for 2160p and 17 for 720p and
               1080p is recommended.
    7.6) While the encoded video stream bitrate exceeds x percent (where x is defined below) of the source video stream
         bitrate, the CRF value must be incremented by 1 or 0.1, until it does not.
        7.6.1) 30% for 720p.
        7.6.2) 60% for 1080p.
        7.6.3) 70% for 2160p.
    7.7) Use of 2-pass is accepted for all resolutions. However, this method should be used only in extreme cases and not as a
         primary replacement for CRF methods. e.g. If the source contains an excessive amount of grain or black and white
        7.7.1) The NFO must provide sufficient detailed evidence of 2-pass producing a visual improvement, bitrate or file
               size advantage over CRF in regards to the source used.
               e.g. Source has heavy grain throughout, which required the use of 2-pass to remain transparent at a reasonable
                    bitrate. Included in the proof directory is test encodes of some troublesome areas at CRF and 2-pass
                    showing a substantial improvement in quality at a more reasonable bitrate. CRF needs 6.5GB to stay
                    transparent 2-pass only needed 4GB is detailed evidence.
               e.g. The source was grainy so 2-pass was used is NOT detailed evidence.
        7.7.2) Exceeding CRF 24 on any resolution is a good indication to consider the use of 2-pass.
        7.7.3) 2-pass encodes must follow the percentage values in 7.6, it is recommended to target the maximum value allotted
               and work down.
    7.8) Exceeding the percentage values in 7.6 is allowed, but very detailed justification must be included in the NFO.
         e.g. 720p encoded at CRF 13 resulting in an encode 50% of the source, this value was picked as the sourced content
              had a lot of strobing effects (e.g. 1m10s-15m30s) and confetti scenes (e.g. 20m55s-50m60s) which compressed
              poorly and required a higher bitrate to maintain transparency. Proof directory contains samples of these
              troublesome scenes at 30% and 50% showing a substantial picture improvement.
    7.9) Using unreasonably high CRF values or low target bitrates with 2-pass for the source content is considered a
         technical flaw.
         e.g. Producing a 1080p encode at 50% of the source bitrate, offering no justification in the NFO and having poor
              transparency to the source IS a technical flaw.
         e.g. Producing a 1080p encode at 30% of the source bitrate (This may occur on animation content to avoid a bloated
              encode), offering justification in the NFO and having good transparency to the source is NOT a technical flaw.
    7.10) Encoded video bitrate must not exceed the source video bitrate.
        7.10.1) Video bitrate refers only to the bitrate for the video stream, and not the overall muxed bitrate of all
                streams within the container.
        7.10.2) The following algorithm can also be used to estimate a CRF value if the value originally used results in a
                bitrate which exceeds the source's.
                ValidCRF = [-6 * (DestinationBitrate - ExcessiveBitrate) / ExcessiveBitrate] + CRFUsed
                e.g. Source bitrate: 4,500Kbps
                     Target bitrate: ~3,400Kbps
                     Encoded bitrate @ CRF17: 5,900Kbps
                     ValidCRF = (-6 * (3400 - 5900) / 5900) + 17
    7.11) Settings cannot go below what is specified for preset (--preset) 'slower' for x264 or 'slow' for x265 by the
          revision used.
    7.12) Level (x264: --level, x265: --level-idc) must be:
        7.12.1) '4.1' for 720p
        7.12.2) '4.1' for 1080p, '4.2' for 1080p above 30fps
        7.12.3) '5.1' for 2160p, '5.2' for 2160p above 30fps.
    7.13) Custom matrices are not allowed.
    7.14) Zones (--zones) may be used, but should be used sparingly with a high degree of caution, the NFO must provide
          sufficient detailed evidence for each zone used.
          e.g. Used a zone at CRF 13 between frames 1634-5343 due to confetti spam and heavy motion resulting in very poor
               compressibility. Proof directory contains two samples of this scene with and without the use of the zone
               showing a drastic improvement in quality while still keeping a reasonable file size.
    7.15) GPU offloading or any other forms of acceleration (e.g. --opencl, nvenc) is not allowed.
    7.16) Optional tuning (--tune) parameters allowed are: 'film', 'grain', or 'animation'.
    7.17) Optional settings recommended for tuning per source, see forum.doom9.org for further information:
        7.17.1) For complex video, --preset veryslow is encouraged.
        7.17.2) --aq-mode 3 --aq-strength x.x
                0.5-0.7 for grainy films.
                0.6-0.9 for digital films.
                0.9-1.1 for animation.
        7.17.3) --psy-rd x.x:0.0
                0.8-1.2 for films.
                0.5-0.8 for animation.
        7.17.4) --deblock x:x
                -3:-3 for films.
                1:1 for animation.
    7.18) Sample Aspect Ratio (--sar) must be '1:1' (square).
    7.19) Disabling deblocking (--no-deblock) is not allowed.
    7.20) Frame rate must be passed to x264/x265 such that the keyframe interval (--keyint) and minimum GOP length
          (--min-keyint) can be correctly set by the encoder. Changing these values is not allowed.
    7.21) Color space must be 4:2:0.
    7.22) Color matrix (--colormatrix) may be optionally set to 'bt709' for SDR content, but is not required.
    7.23) x265 specifics:
        7.23.1) Range (--range), color primaries (--colorprim), transfer (--transfer), color matrix (--colormatrix) and chroma
                sample location (--chromaloc) must be set to the same value as the source, or omitted if the source value is
        7.23.2) Ultra-HD Bluray support (--uhd-bd) is not allowed.
        7.23.3) High tier (--high-tier), repeat headers (--repeat-headers), access unit delimiter (--aud) and HRD signalling
                (--hrd) must be enabled.
        7.23.4) HDR releases must be encoded with:
   HDR10 signalling (--hdr10) and HDR10 optimization (--hdr10-opt) enabled.
   Master Display (--master-display) and Max CL (--max-cll) set to the same value as the source, or omitted
                      if the source value is undefined.
       Master Display and Max CL values must be taken from the whole concatenated source, not a partial
                            source. e.g. the first m2ts file.
    7.24) Any form of tone-mapping (e.g. HDR to SDR, DV to SDR, HDR10Plus to SDR) is not allowed, use INTERNAL.
    7.25) HDR, DV and HDR10Plus must only be released at the source resolution, except in cases when 4.5.3 applies.
          e.g. Source is 2160p and may only be released at 2160p, not 1080p or 720p.
          e.g. Source is 1080p and may only be released at 1080p, not 720p.
    7.26) Suggested command line:
        7.26.1) x264 --preset slower --level ## --crf ##
   Optional tweaks: --no-mbtree --no-fast-pskip --no-dct-decimate
        7.26.2) x265 --high-tier --repeat-headers --aud --hrd --preset slow --level-idc ## --crf ## --range ## --colorprim ##
                --transfer ## --colormatrix ## --chromaloc ##
   If HDR append: --hdr10 --hdr10-opt --master-display ## --max-cll ##
   Optional tweaks: --no-cutree --no-open-gop --no-sao --pmode --aq-mode 4

8) [ Audio ]
    8.1) Lossless tracks include, but are not limited to: DTS:X, TrueHD Atmos, DTS-HD MA, TrueHD, LPCM.
    8.2) Lossy tracks include, but are not limited to: DTS-HD HR, E-AC3, DTS-ES, DTS, AC3.
    8.3) Audio tracks must be:
        8.3.1) For 1080p and 2160p releases:
   The highest quality lossless track, in the order of preference specified in 8.1.
   In cases where a lossless track is not present, the highest quality lossy track in the order of
                     preference specified in 8.2.
        8.3.2) For 720p releases:
   AC3 or E-AC3 extracted core from a lossless or lossy track.
   Lossless tracks must take priority when selecting which audio track is used. Lossy tracks must not be
                     used to extract the core if there is a lossless track present.
   In situations where the extracted core is below 640 Kbps, a new audio track must be transcoded to E-AC3
                     or AC3 from the original lossless source track, see 9.6.
                     e.g. Extracted core: AC3 @ 448 Kbps. = 448 Kbps < 640 Kbps, therefore a new audio track must be
                          transcoded from the source track.
   In situations where there is only a lossy track not in the AC3 or E-AC3 codec, a new audio track must be
                     transcoded from it.
                     e.g. Source track: DTS 1509 Kbps = No lossless track is available, DTS != AC3, therefore a new audio
                          track must be transcoded from the source track.
                     e.g. Source track: AC3 640 Kbps = No lossless track is available, no transcoding is required, mux as is.
                     e.g. Source track: E-AC3 448 Kbps = No lossless track is available, upscaling bitrate is not allowed, no
                          transcoding is required, mux as is.
   In situations where there is only a lossy track in the AC3 or E-AC3 codec, they must be muxed as is.
        8.3.3) All resolutions: FLAC must be used for lossless mono and lossless stereo tracks, as well as multi-channel LPCM
               tracks, see 9.7.
    8.4) Sync must not drift during the entire release.
    8.5) Glitching or unrelated audio that occurs in any audio channel present (e.g. L, R, C) is considered a technical flaw.
        8.5.1) Glitching is defined as, but not limited to: an audible glitch, missing audio, pops or clicks as a result of
               encoding, unintended gaps within playback, missing dialogue, muted or muffled audio.
    8.6) An English spoken release must only contain a single English dialogue track.
        8.6.1) Except in situations of a remastered/restored source, whereby both original and remastered/restored audio track
               may be muxed in. It is at the discretion of the group which track is chosen as the primary dialogue track.
    8.7) A non-English spoken release may contain a secondary dialogue track.
        8.7.1) The original audio track must be used and forced English subtitles must be present, see 10.2.
        8.7.2) Secondary dubbed tracks must only be different dialects or varieties of the original language or an English
               e.g. Original Spanish with secondary Latin Spanish.
               e.g. Original French with secondary English dub.
        8.7.3) In rare cases, a third dubbed track may be included for another dialect or variety of the original language,
               accompanied with an English dubbed track.
               e.g. Chinese original language, English dubbed track and a Cantonese dubbed track.
    8.8) Non-English spoken releases which use only a dubbed track must be tagged as DUBBED.
    8.9) Commentary audio may be included, see 9.8.
    8.10) Audio tracks must only be included once at the highest level of quality allowed for that resolution. e.g. Including
          an English dialogue track at lossless DTS-HD and lossy AC3 is not allowed.
        8.10.1) This does not apply to embedded cores in lossless tracks, which are broken out by muxers as additional tracks,
                see 9.2.
    8.11) Including additional special audio tracks (e.g. isolated scores, original mixes, different narrators) is allowed.
    8.12) Supplementary audio tracks must have the title field set to a descriptive name. e.g. original, remastered,
          commentary with director.
    8.13) The correct ISO 639 language code supported by MKVToolnix must be set for all audio tracks.
        8.13.1) In situations where the language is not supported by MKVToolnix, 'und' must be used.
    8.14) Dupes based on multiple audio tracks, audio format, different narrators or remastered audio are not allowed, use
    8.15) Using multiple retail audio sources of the same movie is allowed, each source and what content came from which must
          be noted in the NFO.
          e.g. Video from BluRay, dubbed track from DVD.

9) [ Audio Codec ]
    9.1) Segmented encoding is not allowed.
    9.2) When transcoding is not required, audio tracks have to be kept in the original format including any cores and muxed
         as is.
    9.3) Audio must not be resampled and must be kept in the original format of the source, e.g. 48 KHz for 48 KHz sources, 24
         bit for 24 bit sources.
    9.4) Audio must not have gain levels (normalization) adjusted and must be kept at the same levels as the source.
    9.5) Audio must not have channels altered or removed and must be kept at the same channel count and layout as the source.
         e.g. dual mono stays dual mono, mono stays mono, stereo stays stereo, 5.1 stays 5.1
        9.5.1) Except for commentary audio, see 9.8.2.
        9.5.2) Except when transcoding to AC3, see 9.6.2.
    9.6) AC3 or E-AC3 must be used when transcoding from a lossless or lossy track.
        9.6.1) AC3 or E-AC3 bitrate must not be below 640 Kbps, and must be created from a higher bitrate source. Only the
               following methods are allowed (in order of preference):
   Dolby Media Encoder
   eac3to: -640
   FFmpeg: -b:a 640k
        9.6.2) When transcoding, positional audio metadata (e.g. DTS:X, TrueHD Atmos) and channels above 5.1 (e.g. 7.1) can be
               retained at the discretion of the group.
    9.7) FLAC must be used for lossless mono and lossless stereo tracks, as well as multi-channel LPCM tracks.
        9.7.1) The best compression (level 8, --compression-level-8) must be used.
        9.7.2) Replay-gain values (--replay-gain) must not be applied.
    9.8) VBR AAC LC (Low Complexity) must be used for commentary audio.
        9.8.1) Apple/QAAC, FDK-AAC or Nero must be used.
        9.8.2) Audio with more than two channels must be down-mixed to stereo. Only the following methods are allowed (in
               order of preference):
   eac3to: -downStereo
   FFMpeg: -ac 2
        9.8.3) Quality based VBR encoding must be used; targeted or constrained VBR must not be used. Only the following
               methods are allowed (in order of preference):
   QAAC: --tvbr 82 --quality 2
   FDK-AAC: --bitrate-mode 4 --profile 2
   Nero: -q 0.4

10) [ Subtitles ]
    10.1) All PGS subtitles (.sup) present on the source must be included as is.
        10.1.1) It is at the discretion of the group to include forced subtitles for dubbed audio tracks not included in the
    10.2) Features with foreign dialogue or overlays must include a separate SubRip subtitle (.srt) track for forced English
          subtitles set as forced and default.
        10.2.1) Except in situations where the source video stream contains hardcoded subtitles for non-English dialogue and
        10.2.2) Except for features with excessive positional subtitles (e.g. Anime) which cannot be presented well in SubRip
                format. PGS subtitles must be used instead and set as forced and default.
    10.3) Forced SubRip subtitles must be free of technical flaws. Including, but not limited to: sync issues, spelling,
          incorrect OCR.
        10.3.1) SubRip subtitles must be carefully OCR'd.
        10.3.2) Minor errors in grammar or punctuation which do not change the meaning of the sentence are tolerated. However,
                it is recommended all errors be corrected.
    10.4) Subtitles from an officially licenced (e.g. Netflix, MoviesAnywhere, HBO TV, Starz TV) WEB/HDTV source or
          alternative retail disc of the same content are allowed.
        10.4.1) Subtitles included from another source must be noted in the NFO. The source and which subtitle tracks used
                must be mentioned.
        10.4.2) Fan-made or custom subtitles are not allowed.
    10.5) Hardcoded subtitles which are only present in the source video stream are allowed, with the exception of non-English
          hardcoded subtitles in English features.
        10.5.1) When hardcoded subtitles extend over the entire feature, it must be tagged as SUBBED.
                e.g. English hardcoded subtitles throughout entire feature = Tag SUBBED
                e.g. English hardcoded subtitles for foreign dialogue only = Do not tag SUBBED
        10.5.2) Subtitles which are only present within the letterboxed matte (i.e. the black borders) of a video frame must
                be cropped and OCR'd to SubRip format.
        10.5.3) In situations where subtitles overlay active video and letterbox matte, cropping must be to the widest frame
                where the subtitles are present and applied equally to the relevant sides of the video frame.
    10.6) Subtitles, unless otherwise stated, are not subject to propers or nukes for any technical flaws that may be present
          in the track.
    10.7) Dupes based on subtitles are not allowed, use INTERNAL.

11) [ Subtitle Format ]
    11.1) Allowed formats are PGS (.sup) and SubRip (.srt).
        11.1.1) Compression must only be used when muxing PGS subtitles, zlib is the only allowed compression algorithm.
        11.1.2) PGS subtitles must not be resized.
        11.1.3) UTF-8 encoding must be used for SubRip subtitle tracks.
        11.1.4) SubRip subtitles are not allowed in 3D releases.
    11.2) Subtitles must:
        11.2.1) Have the correct ISO 639 language code supported by MKVToolNix set
   In situations where the language is not supported by MKVToolNix, 'und' must be used.
        11.2.2) Not be set as default or forced, unless otherwise stated in section 10.
        11.2.3) Have the correct sync offset set during muxing.
    11.3) It is strongly recommended to have descriptive names set on the title field.
          e.g. Director's Commentary, English (Forced), English (SDH).
    11.4) 3D releases must use 3D subtitles. Using 2D subtitles for a 3D release or vice versa is not allowed.
    11.5) Burning-in subtitles to the video stream is not allowed.
    11.6) External subtitles located in 'Subs' directories are not allowed.

12) [ Container ]
    12.1) Container must be Matroska (.mkv). MKVToolnix is the recommended muxer.
        12.1.1) Custom muxing tools are allowed. However, the output must adhere to the Matroska specifications and must
                retain identical compatibility with demuxers as files created with MKVToolnix.
    12.2) Support for file streaming and playback from RAR is mandatory.
    12.3) Matroska header compression must not be enabled.
    12.4) Chapters are mandatory, when present on the source.
        12.4.1) Chapter names are optional, but any chapter names including those auto-generated by muxers must be in English.
    12.5) Watermarks, intros, outros or any other forms of defacement in any track (e.g. video, audio, subtitles, chapters)
          are not allowed.

13) [ Packaging ]
    13.1) Releases must be packed with RAR files and broken into a maximum of 101 volumes.
        13.1.1) The old style extension-based naming scheme must be used. i.e. .rar to .r99.
        13.1.2) The extension of the first volume in the archive set must be .rar.
    13.2) RAR5/RARv5.0 is not allowed. RAR3/v2.0 or RAR4/v2.9 must be used.
        13.2.1) Custom RAR tools can be used. Files produced from custom tools must adhere to the RAR3/v2.0 or RAR4/v2.9
                archive specification and retain identical compatibility with extractors and demuxers as file created with
    13.3) The following archive sizes are allowed:
        13.3.1) Positive integer multiples of 50,000,000 bytes.
                e.g. (50 * 10^6) * n bytes, where n > 0.
                     (50 * 10^6) * 4 bytes, 100,000,000 bytes, 400,000,000 bytes.
        13.3.2) Releases must have a minimum of 10 volumes before the next multiple of 50,000,000 bytes is used.
                e.g. 10 volumes at 50,000,000 bytes can be repackaged to 5 volumes at 100,000,000 bytes.
                     5 volumes at 100,000,000 bytes cannot be repacked to 4 volumes at 150,000,000 bytes.
    13.4) A single SFV must be present for the primary archives and contain the entire archive set.
    13.5) NFO, RAR, SFV, Proof, Sample files must have unique, lower-case filenames with the group tag.
        13.5.1) Group tags must be unique to each group, and may be an abbreviated variation of the group name.
    13.6) Preing a release with missing RAR(s) or SFV on all sites is considered a technical flaw.
    13.7) Corrupt RAR(s) (errors upon extraction) is considered a technical flaw.
    13.8) RAR compression and recovery records are not allowed.
    13.9) Encryption or password protection is not allowed.
    13.10) RAR archive set must only contain a single mkv file, any other files (e.g. multiple mkv files, txt files) are not
        13.10.1) Except for extras releases, multiple mkv files are allowed and filenames must be unique and descriptive.
                 e.g. The.Big.Bang.Theory.S01.EXTRAS.1080p.BluRay.x264-GROUP contains:
                      - Interview.with.the.Cast.mkv
                      - S01E01.Bloopers.mkv
   All HD/UHD extras must be included.
   External extras located in 'Extras' directories are not allowed.

14) [ NFO ]
    14.1) A single NFO file must be present, and must contain the following information:
        14.1.1) Movies: iMDB link mandatory if available.
        14.1.2) Series: TVmaze/TheTVDB link mandatory if available.
   iMDB link is mandatory if it's available and TVmaze/TheTVDB links are not.
   AniDB link may be used in lieu of a TVmaze/TheTVDB link for anime titles.
        14.1.3) All content: Source video stream bitrate.
   Must be retrieved using an accurate method, such as: MediaInfo (using --parsespeed=1), BDInfo, etc.
    14.2) The following information is optional, but recommended:
        14.2.1) Release name and group.
        14.2.2) Release date.
        14.2.3) Runtime.
        14.2.4) Resolution and aspect ratio.
        14.2.5) Frame rate.
        14.2.6) Audio format.
        14.2.7) File size.
        14.2.8) Archive information.
        14.2.9) List of included subtitles.
        14.2.10) CRF value.

15) [ Proof ]
    15.1) Proof must be provided for every release.
        15.1.1) A photograph of reasonable high quality of the printed side of the physical disc with the group name clearly
                visible must be used.
        15.1.2) Photographs must be at least 640x480px in resolution. Disc details must be clear and legible.
        15.1.3) Small identifiable or sensitive information may be redacted.
        15.1.4) Photographs must be of the actual disc used for the final encode.
        15.1.5) Cover scans or m2ts samples may be included, but do not count as the required proof.
    15.2) Proof must be placed in a separate directory named 'Proof'.
        15.2.1) Proof must be in JPEG or PNG format and must not be archived.
    15.3) When video, audio or subtitles are taken from multiple retail sources, proof must be provided for all sources used.
          e.g. Video from Source A and audio from Source B are used. Proof of Source A and B is required.
    15.4) All EXIF data (especially any personally identifiable such as geolocation) must be stripped.
        15.4.1) Drawing attention (e.g. nuking, propering, mentioning in nfo) to proof which has not stripped EXIF data is
                strictly not allowed.
    15.5) A release which fails to pre with the required proof is considered technically flawed and can be propered.
        15.5.1) Proof fixes must be pred within 24 hours of the original pre.
        15.5.2) Fixes provided after a proper has been released, or after 24 hours has elapsed from the original pre will not
                be accepted.

16) [ Samples / Source Samples ]
    16.1) Releases must include a 50-70 second sample for each release, samples must:
        16.1.1) Be placed in a separate directory named 'Sample'.
        16.1.2) Be cut from the final video, not encoded separately and not be archived.
        16.1.3) Not contain opening (e.g. studio titles) or closing (e.g. credits) footage when possible. e.g. cut samples
                from at least 2m in or the middle to avoid this.
    16.2) Source samples are required for any release where the validity of the source may be brought into question.
        16.2.1) Included source samples must have a unique filename and be placed within the 'Proof' directory.
        16.2.2) If there is a question as to the validity of a source, encoding methods, or filters used; the release may be
                nuked within 24 hours of pre requesting a source sample and must include the initial suspicion or reason.
                e.g. source.sample.requested_suspicion.of.invalid.decimation.
        16.2.3) Requests may mention a specific timecode to verify the sample provided is the same source used for the encode
                in question.
                e.g. include.ghosting.at.2m22s.
        16.2.4) The group has 48 hours from the first nuke to pre a source sample that is at least 30 seconds and no more than
                5 minutes in length. If no specific timestamp is requested, source samples must be of the main feature and not
                the starting or ending credits.
        16.2.5) Source samples must be packed as per section 13 and use the SOURCE.SAMPLE tag.
        16.2.6) Failing to provide source proof, or providing insufficient proof to disprove any claims, the original release
                must remain nuked and can be considered technically flawed.

17) [ Tagging ]
    17.1) The following source tags are allowed:
    17.2) Only the following additional tags are allowed:
        17.2.1) <VERSION / CUT TITLE> may be used when a tag from 17.2 does not fit.
                e.g. Deadpool 2: The Super Duper Cut may be tagged as Deadpool.2.2018.The.Super.Duper.Cut
        17.2.2) Proof must be provided for all remastered/restored releases to prove it is in fact a remaster/restore. At
                least 3 screenshots comparing the new and old sources/encodes must be included in the 'Proof' directory.
                Additional information should be included in the NFO, such as a link to an official source with details of the
                remaster/restore process.
    17.3) Variations of any additional tag are not allowed.
          e.g. READ.NFO or RNFO is not allowed, READNFO must be used.
    17.4) READNFO should be used sparingly. Discretion is recommended.
        17.4.1) The READNFO tag must not be used with PROPER, REPACK, or RERIP.
    17.5) Tags must be grouped together, period-delimited, and follow the mandatory directory format, see rule 18.4.
    17.6) Tags must only be used once, but the order is left to the discretion of the group.
        17.6.1) Except in situations where the REAL tag is required to be stacked to differentiate between multiple invalid
                e.g. A REAL.REAL.PROPER is required for a REAL.PROPER and PROPER.
    17.7) The HDR tag should only be used when there was an SDR release first and vice versa.
          e.g. An SDR release of Gemini Man pred first, a subsequent HDR release must be tagged as such.
          e.g. An HDR release of Star Wars pred first, a subsequent SDR release must be tagged as such.

18) [ Directory ]
    18.1) Acceptable characters allowed for directories are:
    18.2) Single punctuation must be used. Consecutive punctuation is not allowed.
          e.g. Show----Name.S01E01, Show.Name....S01E01
    18.3) Typos or spelling mistakes in the directory are not allowed.
    18.4) Releases must match the following directory format:
        18.4.1) Feature.Title.<YEAR>.<TAGS>.[LANGUAGE].<RESOLUTION>.<FORMAT>.<x264|x265>-GROUP
        18.4.2) Weekly.TV.Show.[COUNTRY_CODE].[YEAR].SXXEXX[Episode.Part].[Episode.Title].<TAGS>.[LANGUAGE].<RESOLUTION>.
        18.4.3) Weekly.TV.Show.Special.SXXE00.Special.Title.<TAGS>.[LANGUAGE].<RESOLUTION>.<FORMAT>.<x264|x265>-GROUP
        18.4.4) Multiple.Episode.TV.Show.SXXEXX-EXX[Episode.Part].[Episode.Title].<TAGS>.[LANGUAGE].<RESOLUTION>.<FORMAT>.
        18.4.5) Cross.Over.TV.Show.One.SXXEXX[Episode.Part].[Episode.Title]_Show.Two.SXXEXX[Episode.Part].[Episode.Title].
        18.4.6) Miniseries.Show.PartX.[Episode.Title].<TAGS>.[LANGUAGE].<RESOLUTION>.<FORMAT>.<x264|x265>-GROUP
        18.4.7) Musical.Performance.or.Event.<PERFORMANCE_YEAR>.<TAGS>.<RESOLUTION>.<FORMAT>.<x264|x265>-GROUP
        18.4.8) Artist.Name.Recording.Name.<RECORDING_YEAR>.<TAGS>.<RESOLUTION>.PURE.<FORMAT>.<x264|x265>-GROUP
    18.5) Named directory arguments formatted inside <> must be included. Optional arguments formatted inside [] can be used
          in some cases.
        18.5.1) Mini-series parts must be at least 1 integer wide, and values used may extend past 9.
                e.g. Miniseries.Part.1, Miniseries.Part.10.
        18.5.2) Episode and seasonal numbering must be at least 2 integers wide, and values used may extend past 99.
                e.g. S01E99, S01E100, S101E01.
        18.5.3) Episode part refers to episodes, usually cartoons or animation, which split episodes into stories by different
                directors. Episode parts must be alphanumeric (A-Z, a-z, 0-9).
                e.g. The first episode from Season 2 of SpongeBob SquarePants is split into S02E01A/B, see:
        18.5.4) Season must be omitted if a series is not a mini-series and does not have seasons.
                e.g. One Piece must be tagged as One.Piece.E01.
        18.5.5) Episode title is optional.
        18.5.6) Tags refers to all permitted tags only, see section 17.
        18.5.7) Non-English releases must include the language tag. English releases must not include the language tag.
   Language tags must be the full name of the language. Abbreviations or language codes are not allowed.
                      e.g. FRENCH, RUSSIAN, GERMAN.
        18.5.8) Format refers to the video source used.
                e.g. BluRay, TELECINE, HDDVD.
    18.6) Do not indicate the ripping, or encoding methods that were used. Use the NFO for any technical details.
    18.7) Non-series releases (e.g. movies, documentaries) must include the production year.
    18.8) Different shows with the same title produced in different countries must have the ISO 3166-1 alpha 2 country code in
          the show name.
        18.8.1) Except for UK shows, which must use UK, not GB.
        18.8.2) This rule does not apply to an original show, only shows that succeed the original.
                e.g. The.Office.S01E01 and The.Office.US.S01E01.
    18.9) Different shows with the same title produced in the same country which begin in different years must have the year
          of the first season in the directory.
        18.9.1) The year is not required for the show broadcasted first.
                e.g. Second.Chance.S01E01 and Second.Chance.2016.S01E01.
    18.10) Different shows with the same titles produced in the same country which begin in different years must have the
           ISO-3166-1 alpha 2 country code followed by the year of the first season in the directory.
        18.10.1) See rules 18.8 and 18.9 for country code and year explanations.
                 e.g. Wanted.S01E01 (2005), Wanted.AU.S01E01 (2013), Wanted.AU.2016.S01E01 (2016).
    18.11) Show names which are hyphenated or include punctuation must follow the format shown in the title sequence or
           credits of the first episode, limited to the list of acceptable characters.
        18.11.1) If no title card exists, see rule 18.13.1.
        18.11.2) Additional titles and names given to an individual season must not be used.
                 e.g. Archer.Vice.S05, Strike.Back.Legacy.S05.
        18.11.3) Acronyms which show the ellipsis of letters with non-standard characters must be replaced with a period.
                 e.g. M*A*S*H must be M.A.S.H.
                 e.g. George Carlin... It's Bad for Ya! must be George.Carlin.Its.Bad.For.Ya.
    18.12) Directory nomenclature and numbering must remain consistent across the lifetime of an individual show or event.
        18.12.1) Shows which contain acronyms or secondary titles must follow the format used by the first release.
                 e.g. Law.and.Order.SVU.S01E01 is the standard format that must be used for all following episodes,
                      Law.and.Order.Special.Victims.Unit.S01E02 is not allowed.
                      Shadowhunters.The.Mortal.Instruments.S01E01 is the standard format, Shadowhunters.S01E02 is not allowed.
        18.12.2) Shows which air with extended content under modified names must use the primary show name and numbering with
                 the EXTENDED tag.
                 e.g. QI.S06E01 and QI.XL.S01E01, must be tagged as QI.S06E01 and QI.S06E01.EXTENDED respectively.
                      Room.101.S01E01 and Room.101.Extra.Storage.S01E01, must be tagged as Room.101.S01E01 and
                      Room.101.S01E01.EXTENDED respectively.
        18.12.3) Groups cannot change the directory format of a show after a second release or episode with the same format
                 e.g. 2016-01-01: Law.and.Order.SVU.S01E01 sets the format.
                      2016-01-08: Law.and.Order.SVU.S01E02 continues the format.
                      2016-01-09: Law.and.Order.Special.Victims.Unit.S01E01.DIRFIX is not valid as the second episode already
                 exists and continues with the previously defined format.
        18.12.4) Except in situations where the show has an official change in its name, whereby all official references by
                 the broadcaster or studio are of the new name. This change must be mentioned in the first NFO with the new
                 name with relevant references.
                 e.g. Gold.Rush.Alaska.S01E01 changed to Gold.Rush.S02E01.
        18.12.5) Official name changes for a show does not include the renaming of individual seasons. Seasonal name changes
                 must be ignored.
                 e.g. Power.Rangers.S01 and Power.Rangers.S07 must be used. Power.Rangers.Lost.Galaxy.S07 must not be used.
                      Strike.Back.S03, Strike.Back.S05 must be used. Strike.Back.Vengeance.S03, Strike.Back.Legacy.S05 must
                      not be used.
        18.12.6) Any deviations or changes require sufficient evidence listed in the NFO as to the reason for change.
    18.13) User-contributed services such as TVMaze or TheTVDB must not be used as a reference when naming and numbering
           episodes. It may be used as a general guide; however, official guides must be used.
        18.13.1) The following order must be used as the primary source for naming and numbering.
   Official website of the show.
   Order and format listed by the original broadcaster.
   Network guide.
        18.13.2) In situations where official sources have inconsistent listings, or offer none at all, previously established
                 numbering must be used.
                 e.g. MythBusters, National Geographic Special Episodes.

19) [ Fixes ]
    19.1) The following fixes are allowed:
    19.2) Any other form of fix is not allowed.
          e.g. RARFIX, SFVFIX, SUBFIX
    19.3) All fixes require an NFO and must state which release is being fixed.
    19.4) A proper may not be released for a flaw which can be fixed with the above methods, with the exception of proof
          fixes, see 15.5.1.
    19.5) If multiple releases from a single season require a DIRFIX, a single DIRFIX per season is allowed and recommended.
          e.g. Show.Name.S01.1080p.DIRFIX.BluRay.x264-GROUP.
        19.5.1) If a single DIRFIX is used, all relevant releases and corresponding fixes must be listed in the NFO.
                e.g. The NFO should contain the following:
                     This is the correct order in which to watch the show;
                     Some.Show.S01E02.720p.BluRay.x264-GROUP is actually E01
                     Some.Show.S01E01.720p.BluRay.x264-GROUP is actually E02
                     Some.Show.S01E05.720p.BluRay.x264-GROUP is actually E04
                     Some.Show.S01E04.720p.BluRay.x264-GROUP is actually E05

20) [ Dupes ]
    20.1) All high definition formats are considered of equal quality and dupe each other, e.g. BluRay dupes HDDVD.
        20.1.1) Except in situations where the release is a different version
                (e.g. DC, REMASTERED, ALTERNATIVE.CUT) or framed in a different way (e.g. WS, OM, OAR, FS) to the previous
                release, and is not censored after uncensored.
    20.2) Native video streams do not dupe converted video streams.
    20.3) Converted video streams dupe native video streams.
    20.4) Releases which use retail sources do not dupe releases with non-retail sources.
    20.5) Releases which use non-retail sources dupe retail releases.
    20.6) Releases with muxed-in subtitles do not dupe releases with hardcoded subtitles.
    20.7) Releases with hardcoded subtitles (i.e. SUBBED) dupe releases with muxed in subtitles.
    20.8) HDR after SDR or vice versa does not dupe.
    20.9) Non-foreign tagged English release does not dupe foreign tagged release.

21) [ Propers / Repacks / Re-Rips ]
    21.1) Detailed reasons must be included in the NFO for all repacks, rerips, and propers.
        21.1.1) Proper reasons must be clearly stated in the NFO, including timestamps and specifics in regards to the flaw
                when appropriate.
        21.1.2) If a release is not globally nuked, a sample demonstrating the flaws in the original release is required, and
                must be placed within the 'Proof' directory.
    21.2) Propers are only permitted in the case of a technical flaw in the original release.
        21.2.1) Qualitative propers are not allowed, use INTERNAL.
    21.3) Audio or visual glitches can be propered with a release which does not exhibit the same flaw.
        21.3.1) In situations where mastering issues results in visual or audio glitches, a release must not be nuked until a
                valid proper, repack, or rerip using a glitch-free source or master is released.
    21.4) RERIP must be used for ripping or encoding issues.
    21.5) REPACK must be used for packing or muxing issues.

22) [ Internals ]
    22.1) Unless explicitly stated, internal releases must follow all rules detailed in this document. Internal releases are
          only exempt from the following rules:
        22.1.1) Encoding specifics, e.g. experimental settings, advanced settings.
        22.1.2) Experimental codecs or containers.
    22.2) Internal releases must mention what rule exemptions have been observed with reasoning in the NFO, and may be nuked
          if they do not.
          e.g. Tone-mapped to SDR from HDR UHD.Bluray as there is no planned SDR disc for this feature.
        22.2.1) In situations where something was not mentioned in the NFO, groups may provide an NFOFIX to avoid or reverse a
    22.3) Using DIRFIX.INTERNAL to avoid a nuke is not allowed, and must be nuked fix.for.nuke.

23) [ Ruleset Specifics ]
    23.1) This ruleset is to be considered the ONLY official ruleset for HD and UHD retail. It supersedes all previous
          revisions, rulesets and precedents.
        23.1.1) Releasing under former rulesets or codecs is not allowed, and must be nuked defunct.ruleset or defunct.codec.
        23.1.2) The naming standards listed in this document must only take effect once a current running season has ended.
                Any existing naming schemes must be used in the event of missing episode(s) from older seasons being filled.
        23.1.3) This ruleset is not retroactive, and only applies to releases released under it.
    23.2) The following definition of keywords throughout this ruleset are as follows:
        23.2.1) Must: the rule is explicit in the definition and is compulsory.
        23.2.2) Should: implies the rule is a suggestion, and is non-compulsory.
        23.2.3) Can or may: implies the rule is optional, and is non-compulsory.
        23.2.4) e.g: refers to common examples, elements listed should not be considered as all possibilities.
        23.2.5) i.e: refers to the only examples, elements listed will be considered as all valid possibilities.

24) [ Notes ]
    24.1) The inclusion of 2-pass in this ruleset should not be misconstrued as preferring it for every release, CRF must
          always be considered the primary method. Instead, it is encouraged for groups to use 2-pass methods for rare cases
          when files provided are of extremely high quality.
        24.1.1) Video which contains an excessive amount of noise may often result in an unnecessary large bitrate. In such
                situations, encoding to a smaller bitrate using 2-pass can result in a file size improvement with negligible
                loss in video quality.
    24.2) Dolby Vision (DV) and HDR10+ (HDR10Plus) are considered out of scope, due to lack of support and no standard
          workflow for producing them, and must only be released as INTERNAL.
        24.2.1) DV encodes must have DV Profile (--dolby-vision-profile) and RPU metadata (--dolby-vision-rpu) set to the same
                values as the source.
   Including the DV enhancement layer on a HDR or HDR10Plus encode is another option.
   Until such a time as Matroska gains support for Dolby Vision, MP4 may be used and dlb_mp4base or MP4Box
                      are the only allowed muxers. It is fully at the group's discretion to work around any pitfalls of the
                      MP4 container (e.g. limited audio codec and subtitles support). Groups are exempt from any rules with
                      regards to these pitfalls.
        24.2.2) HDR10Plus releases, in addition to HDR specifics (see 7.23.4), must have SEI tone mapping metadata
                (--dhdr10-info) set to the same values as the source. Tone mapping metadata optimisation (--dhdr10-opt) must
                be enabled.
        24.2.3) Any metadata must be extracted from the whole concatenated source, not a partial source. e.g. the first m2ts
        24.2.4) Until such a time as mapping metadata to cropped encodes is possible, DV and HDR10Plus are exempt from
                cropping rules and must be left uncropped.
        24.2.5) The rules below will apply in a hypothetical future when all pitfalls and issues mentioned above are resolved,
                support has become widespread, does not result in any playback issues and at least three months have elapsed
                from support being added.
   If the source contains a DV enhancement layer, it must be muxed in with the correct DV Profile set for
                      the source during muxing.
   If the source contains HDR10Plus SEI metadata, 24.2.2 is mandatory.
   24.2.3 must be respected.
   The HDR10Plus tag must not be used.
   DV single layer encodes (see 24.2.1) are only allowed when the source is single layer DV (i.e. No HDR,
                      only DV). The DV tag must only be used in the case of single layer DV.
    24.3) Until such a time as remuxed releases have their own ruleset. They are subject to relevant rules from sections
          12-24, of this ruleset.
        24.3.1) Remuxed releases must include all subtitle tracks and all audio tracks (e.g. commentary, dialogue) only once
                at the highest quality available on the source. It is at the discretion of the group to include dubbed
                language or descriptive tracks.
        24.3.2) Tracks must be muxed in as is without any modification.
        24.3.3) When including optional Dolby Vision enhancement layers in a remux, must be followed.
        24.3.4) When tagging remuxed releases, the following applies to section 18.
   H265 must be used in place of X265.
   H264 must be used in place of X264.

[ Signed (in alphabetical order) - 85 Groups ]

[ Refused to Sign (in alphabetical order) - 8 Groups ]

[ Revisions ]
2007-04-28 - High.Def.x264.movie.standards.rls.1-NFO
2007-07-05 - High.Def.x264.Movie.Standards.Rev2
2008-10-13 - High.Definition.x264.Standards.Revision.3.0-HDX
2008-12-20 - High.Definition.x264.Standards.Revision.3.1-HDX
2009-01-27 - High.Definition.x264.Standards.Revision.3.1.Addendum.1-HDX
2011-01-29 - High.Definition.x264.Standards.Revision.4.0-HDX
2011-01-29 - High.Definition.x264.Standards.Revision.4.0.UPDATE-HDX
2020-04-15 - High.Definition.x264.and.Ultra.High.Definition.x265.Standards.Revision.5.0-HDX - Total rewrite, hardened all
rules, switched to CRF, UHD and x265 are supported.